© 2022 Innovation Trail
background_fid.png

Russia's 226 attacks on health-care targets in Ukraine are part of a larger pattern

Mariana Vishegirskaya stands outside a maternity hospital that was damaged by shelling in Mariupol, Ukraine, on March 9. Vishegirskaya later gave birth to a girl in another hospital in Mariupol.
Mstyslav Chernov
/
AP
Mariana Vishegirskaya stands outside a maternity hospital that was damaged by shelling in Mariupol, Ukraine, on March 9. Vishegirskaya later gave birth to a girl in another hospital in Mariupol.

Updated May 24, 2022 at 5:09 PM ET

It was just two months ago that the World Health Organization decried the Russian airstrike that devastated a maternity hospital in the Ukrainian city of Mariupol, killing 3 people and injuring 17.

WHO has confirmed that was only one of 226 attacks by Russian attacks on Ukraine health facilities since the conflict began in February.

Nor is Ukraine the only conflict area where health facilities and health workers have been routinely targeted and attacked. According to a newly released report by the Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition, 1,335 separate incidents occurred in 49 countries and conflict-affected territories in 2021. Among the 1,458 health workers caught in the attacks, 161 were killed, 320 injured and 170 kidnapped.

Further itemizing the impact of the attacks, the report found that of the 493 incidents involving health facilities, 188 were destroyed or damaged. In addition, 111 health transport vehicles were damaged or destroyed and another 64 stolen or hijacked.

Yet these numbers probably represent a severe undercount, with such data "more difficult to obtain than battle deaths and killings of civilians," the report notes, due to some tight restrictions in some regions on reporting and access.

What happens to the health needs of the local population in the short-term – and what are the long-term consequences of this kind of destruction? How can what happened in past conflicts help us gain insight into the plight of those in Ukraine now?

To learn more, we spoke with Leonard Rubenstein, chair, Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition, professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health and author of Perilous Medicine: The Struggle to Protect Health Care from the Violence of War; Dr. Michele Heisler, medical director at Physicians for Human Rights and a professor of internal medicine and of public health at the University of Michigan; and Dr. Houssam al-Nahhas, the Middle East and North Africa researcher at Physicians for Human Rights. Their comments have been edited for length and clarity.

Physicians for Human Rights has documented 601 deliberate attacks on 350 medical facilities in Syria from 2011 onward. Why target medical facilities?

Heisler: It is a devastatingly effective weapon of war because there are few greater ways of terrorizing the population, of breaking their will and lowering morale, than through attacking health care. An article in The Lancet called this strategy "the weaponization of health care."

In this photo from May 2016, citizens and firefighters gather at the scene after a rocket hit the Dubeet hospital in Aleppo, Syria. As attacks have continued during the war, some health-care facilities have moved underground to try and serve their patients in relative safety.
/ SANA via AP
/
SANA via AP
In this photo from May 2016, citizens and firefighters gather at the scene after a rocket hit the Dubeet hospital in Aleppo, Syria. As attacks have continued during the war, some health-care facilities have moved underground to try and serve their patients in relative safety.

Al-Nahhas: When a country attacks health-care facilities they are sending the message that they don't have any boundaries to what they can do. This is targeting people who cannot defend themselves and who cannot pose a threat because they're patients. It is a way to break people's resilience. Going to the hospital becomes dangerous, going there to get help means risking your life.

Was that one of the immediate consequences you saw in Syria and elsewhere?

Al-Nahhas: We documented this in a case history of what happened after three airstrikes hit al-Altareb hospital in Aleppo in March 2021. Afterward, there was a significant decrease in consultations and beneficiaries of health care due to the risk of being bombed at the facility.

There was a decrease of 78% of prenatal and reproductive care consultations. We also witnessed a 27% decrease in normal deliveries. Many would elect to do a C-section in order to know when they will come in and when they will go out and to limit the time spent in the facility.

That is also what I witnessed in Aleppo during my time there as an emergency physician between 2014 and 2016, when we saw a spike of C-sections in conjunction with military escalations in 2014.

What else happens when health-care facilities are attacked?

Heisler: In the short-term there is chaos. Supplies, medications, oxygen are in short supply. People are not getting IV fluids or necessary surgery or other treatments, such as dialysis, and there are needless deaths as a result.

A man walks with crutch in a hospital in western Aleppo, Syria, damaged by attacks by the Bashar al-Assad regime during the country's ongoing civil war.
/ Muhammed Said/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
/
Muhammed Said/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
A man walks with crutch in a hospital in western Aleppo, Syria, damaged by attacks by the Bashar al-Assad regime during the country's ongoing civil war.

Rubenstein: On top of that, the hospitals may not have a track record of dealing with the complex injuries resulting from these powerful weapons. There may also be fewer staff members. In Syria, many of the most experienced physicians left, leaving behind the less experienced and younger physicians. There was an effort at quick training and a shifting of inexperienced people doing more complex things. For instance, technicians who supported the anesthesiologists may have to do the anesthesia or dentists [may have to] do oral surgery.

Are there additional ramifications for health care as the conflict continues?

Rubenstein: Childhood vaccinations tend to decline because the vaccinators are attacked — as in Afghanistan — and whole vaccine initiatives have to be suspended. Measles vaccinations have to be suspended either because of attacks on the vaccinators or because of the general insecurity, where it's too dangerous to go house to house. Attacks on a health-care facility in Zemio in Central African Republic [in 2017] led to HIV and AIDS programs being suspended.

In Yemen the Saudis have bombed both hospitals and water and sanitation infrastructure, such as pumping plants, which then led to a cholera epidemic that affected more than 2 million people.

Heisler: In Syria, hospitals went underground. You go from flying the white flag and when you realize that might indeed be a target, you take down the flag and you go underground. In Syria there was a whole system of underground hospitals.

Al-Nahhas: If all the intensive care units are occupied by people with war injuries, that equipment is not available to be used to help COVID patients or heart patients or any non-war related illness.

And what longer term consequences have you seen from such attacks?

Rubenstein: Even after a conflict ends it often takes a very long time to restore health capacity. And in the meantime people's health continues to suffer in ways similar to during the conflict.

A nurse moves scrap from a damaged part of the Wukro General Hospital, which was shelled as government-aligned forces entered the city in the Tigray region of Ethiopia on February 28, 2021.
EDUARDO SOTERAS / Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images
/
Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images
A nurse moves scrap from a damaged part of the Wukro General Hospital, which was shelled as government-aligned forces entered the city in the Tigray region of Ethiopia on February 28, 2021.

Heisler: The concern is this might lead to the complete collapse of the health-care system. The continuing shortage of health-care workers and no supplies and no system to provide necessary care — that is devastating. In Yemen, and in Tigray [Ethiopia, where a war began in 2020 and is still going on] almost all health-care systems are not functioning.

What about the impact on the physicians and health-care workers? The stress must be acute.

Al-Nahhas: I think it's important for people to know what the health-care workers are experiencing in Ukraine — especially when health care is not protected in conflict.

It's knowing that you are in a hospital and treating patients and yet you can be targeted and killed at any moment. You need to provide the best care for your patients but you're also worried about your own safety.

I was in Syria for two years literally living in the hospital. It was rewarding to see the impact of [our] the work on people, but it was not sustainable because of the stress on all the health-care providers. We were not used to seeing so much trauma. We had to learn as we went along how to treat war-related injuries that we had never seen before.

This sense of how bad things can get — the flashbacks from Syria — are still with me after eight years.

What is being done to stop such attacks? Three international courts are now investigating possible war crimes committed by Russia in Ukraine. Could that make a difference?

Heisler: We need to establish accountability by documenting and gathering evidence of what has happened. That is the role of organizations like ours. If we live in a world in which you can bomb hospitals in war, killing patients and health-care workers, then we really would be returning to no-holds barred wars where no one is safe. We have to be sure that this does not continue.

Diane Cole writes for many publications, including The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post. She is the author of the memoir After Great Pain: A New Life Emerges. Her website is DianeJoyceCole.com.

Copyright 2022 NPR. To see more, visit https://www.npr.org.